Appendix - Terms

`Allele`: An allele is one of two, or more, forms of a given gene variant. An allele is one of two, or more, versions of the same gene at the same place on a chromosome.

`Locus`: A locus (plural loci) is a specific, fixed position on a chromosome where a particular gene or genetic marker is located. Each chromosome carries many genes, with each gene occupying a different position or locus;

`Gene`: A gene is a basic unit of heredity and a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that encodes the synthesis of a gene product, either RNA or protein.

`Genome`: A genome is all genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA, as well as mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA.

`Genotype`: A genotype is an organism’s complete set of genetic material. Often though, genotype is used to refer to a single gene or set of genes, such as the genotype for eye color. The genes take part in determining the characteristics that are observable (phenotype) in an organism, such as hair color, height, etc.

`Phenotype`: Phenotype is the term used in genetics for the composite observable characteristics or traits of an organism. The term covers the organism’s morphology or physical form and structure, its developmental processes, its biochemical and physiological properties, its behavior, and the products of behavior.

`Individual`: An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity (see Population).

`Population`: A population is defined as a group of individuals of the same species living and interbreeding within a given area.